Energy Quest, Inc. Products
Fluidized bed gasification has been successfully used to convert biomass wastes (i.e. wood wastes, bark, and agricultural wastes) into a clean fuel gas that can be used to fire various types of industrial equipment. Past applications have included gasification of wastes to provide gas for dryers previously fired on natural gas. Fluidized bed gasifiers also have applications in the lumber and plywood industries where they can be used to fire small boilers and direct fired dryers and kilns that are currently fired on expensive natural gas or oil.
- Reduced cost of boiler or dryer/kiln operation by using wood and or bark wastes rather than gas or oil.
- Reduced cost for additional steaming capacity compared to new wood and or bark fired boilers.
- Reduced dependency on external fuel sources for propane, natural gas and oil.
Fluidized Bed Technology
To understand a fluidized bed, refer to figure 1, and imagine a container filled with fine sand having a porous bottom. If air is forced through the bottom, it seeps through the sand as shown in figure 1-A. If the airflow is increased a point is reached where the sand particles separate to let the air through, and bubbles form which mix and churn the sand. The sand bed takes on a fluid-like character, and the bed is violently mixed and agitated. This is a fluidized bed.
Fluidized Bed Gasification
In fluidized bed gasification, the sand bed is preheated to a temperature of 1000oF. Solid or liquid waste are injected into the bed, and when they are mixed with the hot sand, the wastes are quickly decomposed into a combustible gas. The flow of air is controlled so that only about 25% of the incoming wastes are "burned" in the bed to raise and maintain the temperature at 1500oF. The remaining material is decomposed into gas. Once the bed is preheated, no more fossil fuels are needed. The wastes supply all required heat. The process is shown in figure 2.
The fluidized bed system is made in such a way that the ash particles are carried out of the bed with the gas stream.
This ash is then removed from the gas stream by a special ash removal system. The hot gas is then directed to a special burner that can burn the hot gas while producing low emissions. Any gravel or stones in the incoming fuel can be removed by periodically extracting some of the sand from the bottom of the bed while it is operating, screening to separate stones from the sand, and then reinjecting the sand into the bed. Because the primary product of the process is a gaseous fuel and not simply heat, the process is called "fluidized bed gasification".
BENEFITS OF FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION
The fluidized bed gasification process offers several substantial benefits compared to simple burning processes, and other forms of gasification.
The overall thermal efficiency of fluid bed gasifiers is typically in the range of 75% to over 90%, depending on the ash and moisture content of the fuel.
Tolerates Many Feedstocks
Unlike some burners (such as suspension burners) or old style fixed bed gasifiers, the fluid bed gasifiers can operate satisfactorily with highly variable feed materials ranging from coal, shredded wood and bark to sawdust fines, or lump wood with particle sizes of less than 1 1/2 – 2 inches. In contrast, other types of gasifiers or burners require either dry pellets, nuggets of cleanwood, or uniformily dry sanderdust. Thus the various types of fuels generally available around lumber mills can be used in fluid bed gasifiers with good results.
The fluid bed gasifier does not have moving grates or other moving parts in the high temperature regions of the bed. Where there are moving parts, heavy duty industrial components proven in lumber and pulp mill operations are used. Reliability is thus high.
The size of energy conversion systems is generally dictated by their air flow. Because fluid bed gasifiers use comparatively small amounts of air, the equipment is comparatively small and compact (see Figure 3). This permits systems to be completely shop fabricated and assembled on skids thereby reducing purchase price and installed costs.
Because the process produces a fuel gas rather than just quantities of heat, it can be easily applied to a variety of industrial processes including boilers, dry kilns, veneer dryers, or several pieces of equipment at once.
Operation with wood/bark fuels results in very low emissions, including low NOx, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions. No "tail end" exhaust cleanup devices are required.
Pyrolysis Steam Reformer (PyStR™)
The PyStR™ Technology system incorporates a novel, jetting, very high heat transfer direct fuel and sorbent contact reactor which is utilized to steam reform coal, giant cane, wood chips, or any other biomass, and chemically separate carbon dioxide. The pyrolysis of biomass is accomplished by direct contact between the biomass fuel stock and hot granular calcined lime at moderate pressures. The lime is re-carbonated to limestone directly producing near pure H2 and heat for endothermic (heat consuming) steam reforming. The resulting limestone stream is then re-circulated and re-calcined (regenerated removing the CO2). Essentially 100% of the CO2 can be prevented from entering the atmosphere.
The PyStR™ technology is an inexpensive and simple method of reforming hydrocarbons (carbonaceous materials) and calcining lime to chemically separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide into two separate streams. It converts common cheap ingredients (coal or wood, air, water) into near pure streams of hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2). It produces no flue gas.
The technology produces near pure hydrogen in a single step process simply by feeding coal or biomass chips into a hot jetting granular lime filled reactor. The biomass is pyrolyzed and steam reformed into hydrogen and oxides of carbon, which immediately react with the lime producing heat to sustain pyrolysis and steam reforming while also forming limestone. A novel gas/solids separator returns the sorbent (limestone) to an indirect calciner, where the limestone is re-calcined (effectively separating out a stream of near pure carbon dioxide) and re-circulated back to the reactor as lime. Separate streams of near pure hydrogen and carbon dioxide exit the reactor. Thus the direct hydrogen production, gas/solids separation, and re-calcination steps achieved within this novel reactor are all significant improvements over existing state-of-the-art technologies. Moreover, it greatly simplifies the process. We are focusing our efforts in getting this technology to market. We plan to complete a prototype and commercialize the PyStR hydrogen production process during 2007.
SUMMARY OF PATENTS AND INVENTIONS
Patent number: 6712215
A method of recovering solvent from oil sand tailings
A method of solvent recovery from oil sand extraction plant tailings, using 180 degree opposing steam-assisted accelerating nozzles, impacting on each other’s high velocity jets, thus creating an impact area at the point of collision, creating an exceedingly large number of small droplets having a very large surface area exposed to the depressurized environment inside the vessel in which the nozzles are mounted. The diluents thus escaping from the tiny droplets is collected from the vessel space and recovered by condensation in a surface condenser and returned to the process. Download Patent 6712215 This document is in PDF format.
Patent number: 6010677
A method for removing hydrogen sulfide out of liquid sulfur
A process for removing hydrogen sulfide out of liquid sulfur is provided by passing liquid sulfur and saturated steam through at least one acceleration nozzle within a container maintained at less than atmospheric pressure. The saturated steam and liquid sulfur discharged from the acceleration nozzles converge at a common point outside the acceleration nozzle and collide against an impact target so that hydrogen sulfide is removed out of the liquid sulfur. Two acceleration nozzles may be used positioned on a common plane with the outlets of the nozzles facing each other. The discharged steam adiabatically expands within the container which causes the discharged streams to accelerate and which also causes the temperature of the liquid sulfur to drop. Download Patent 6010677 This document is in PDF format.
- Water, water, everywhere,
- Nor any drop to drink
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
- In all, the world contains approximately 1.4 million cubic kilometers of water. Despite this abundance, however, all life on Earth depends on less than one percent of the total volume of water on the planet. The problem lies in quality, not just quantity. Most of earth’s water is salty, leaving only about 2.5 percent as fresh water.
- Most of this is frozen in polar ice caps or glaciers. Much of the rest lies essentially beyond human reach deep underground in aquifers.
- Energy Quest, Inc. (“NrgQst”) exists to provide environmentally friendly, non-destructive technologies to the oil and gas industry, with an emphasis to this industry and as well as other market sectors, for the purpose of recycling and reuse of contaminated water supplies. Typically these water supplies would not be usable but technologies are now available that mitigate solids, totally dissolved solids, microbial bacteria and other harmful micro-organisms in water supplies and recycle non-potable water to clean water that is introduced into the environment. These solutions use technology that is Green – friendly to the environment.
- Oil and gas exploration always associated with production of water
- Produced water contains contaminants from underground rock structures and chemical additives
- Due to rising oil prices, natural gas emerging as a major source of energy worldwide
- Many large reserves were untapped as gas is trapped within shale rock structures
- Gas produced from these structures called Shale Gas
- Now possible to tap those reserves with advanced technology (horizontal drilling and fracking)
- Releasing shale gas during production requires fracturing the rock structures that trap the gas
- Hydrofracture (frac) water” consists of water, sand (or another “proppant”) and a small quantity of chemicals (anti-scalants, friction reducers and biocides), injected under high pressure.
- Frac water that returns during fracing (anywhere from 5-50%) is called flowback water. Flowback water contains dissolved solids from the reservoir and chemicals used in fracing.
- Produced water” is water from the reservoir that flows to the surface with oil or gas production during the life of the well.
- Produced Water” is water trapped in or injected into underground formations that is brought to the surface along with oil or gas. Even without the added volumes resulting from hydraulic fracturing, produced water is the largest volume byproduct associated with oil & gas production.
- Early in the life of an oil well, the oil production is high and water production is low. Over time the oil production decreases and the water production increases. Another way of looking at this is to examine the ratio of water-to-oil:
- U.S. average estimate – 7:1, because many U.S. fields are mature and past their peak production
- Many older U.S. wells have ratios > 50:1
- In excess of 20 billion bbl (barrels; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) of produced water are generated each year in the United States from nearly a million wells (Source: NETL)
- Currently most produced water is disposed of in injection wells or evaporation pits, usually located distant from the production well
- Industry is aggressively seeking alternatives to reduce costs and environmental impacts of Produced Waters and Frac Water.
- Acquisition costs
- $1.25–$1.50/bbl raw water cost
- $1.75–$2.25/bbl concentrated brine water cost
- $0.75–$3.50/bbl transportation cost
- Disposal costs
- $0.75–$3.50/bbl transportation cost
- $0.75–$1.25/bbl disposal via deep well injection
- Total costs
- $2.00–$8.75/bbl fresh water and disposal
- $4.00–$10.50/bbl brine water and disposal
- Pretreatment Steps:
- Organics removal (oil / grease, polymers, etc.) – Oily Water Separator
- Particulate removal (filtration)
- Efficient management (removal of dissolved hardness and metals (scale formers by brine softening)
- Bacteria control (incorporated in brine softening step along with salt removal)
- The major problem with use of flowback water for makeup of hydrofracture water is the total organic carbons and very high content of scale forming constituents present (hard water contaminants).
- The high levels of barium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and strontium common in flowback water will readily form precipitates, scale, which would rapidly block the fractures in gas bearing formations required for economic gas production.
- Removal of these constituents to much lower levels is thus required for recycle of flowback water, or use of production water, as frac water.
- Two methods of contaminant removal used by NrgQst are caustic soda softening and/or ion exchange resins if warranted.
- Example flowback treatment levels for recycling purposes per industry standards:
- Total organic carbon <10 parts per million (ppm) range
- Total cations 10 – 2,000 ppm range
- Acceptable levels range from company to company
- Primary focus on Barium (Ba) and Strontium (Sr), but Calcium (Ca) also a concern
- Ba, Sr , Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg) <10 ppm
- Ca <1,000 ppm
- Hardness <2,500 ppm
- Processed water sulfates levels <30 ppm
- Total Suspended Solids (TSS) <30 ppm
- Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is variable, >50,000 ppm can be acceptable
- Barium, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and strontium belong to a group of chemicals called the “alkaline earth metals.” Although these chemicals belong to the same chemical group, they vary widely in their abundance and behavior in ground water and in their potential health effects.
- Calcium and magnesium are abundant in rocks and soil, particularly limestones and dolomites. They are relatively soluble.
- Strontium and barium are also abundant in earth materials, although their concentrations are one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of calcium and magnesium.
- Strontium and barium are less soluble than calcium and magnesium, but are found in appreciable quantities in aquifers consisting of sandstone and igneous rocks.
- Step #1 Oily Water Separator – The first step comprises a method of effectively extracting organic carbons (oil) from the frac water by means of the Crystal Oily-Water Separator (102) operating in conjunction with the Crystalline Polishing Unit (103).
- Crystal Oily-Water Separator (102) is an innovative apparatus capable of reducing the oil content in the effluent to less than 5 ppm (mg/l) in five stages of separation. Crystal Oily-Water Separator (102) does not require any consumables and is virtually maintenance free resulting in important savings in manpower and downtime costs.
- ØCrystalline Polishing Unit (103) is designed to eliminate any traces of oil and reduce the oil content to zero ppm (mg/l). Similarly to Crystal unit, the polisher does not necessitate filters or other consumables and is designed for unattended operation. Crystalline is the only polishing unit worldwide that can achieve this type of decontamination in terms of effluent purity and without consumables.
- Oil reclaimed by Crystal separator contains up to 6% water and needs to be dehydrated in order to meet pipeline specs, i.e. 0.5% BS&W (basic sediment and water).
- 65°C, do not necessitate chemicals and have few moving parts being far more economical than centrifuges, which operate at 90°C with emulsion breakers and produce pollutant sludge.
- Therefore, Coalescing Dehydrator (104) will assist Vacuum Dehydrator (105) to attain the required oil dryness in one pass or could even eliminate it altogether. The tests will indicate whether Coalescing Dehydrator (104) will be able to achieve pipeline specifications without the Vacuum Dehydrator (105). In any case, it will be very useful in reducing energy consumption and capital costs of the Vacuum Dehydrator (105).
- Step #2 Filtration – Water is then passed through a Conventional Filter Press (201) for solids-water separation designed to retain solids up to 20 microns. Contaminated fluid is injected into the center of the press and the pressure inside the system will increase due to the gradual formation of sludge. Then, the liquid is filtered out through the filter clothes by adding a stream of water. The process is fully automated, the unit having larger plates and frames filter presses with mechanical “plate shifter”. The function of the plate shifter is to move the plates and allow rapid discharge of the filter cakes accumulated in between the plates.
- The Filter Press (201) will be temporarily bypassed during automatic discharge in order to ensure the continuous operation of the system. The filtration system downstream will then handle the fluid during the self-cleaning sequence of the filter press.
- Whereas the Filter Press (201) is very effective in removing solids it cannot accomplish a satisfactory clarification of the water. In some situations the water turbidity can be quite high and further steps are provided for dealing with such turbidity.
- The filtered water is introduced into a Mixing Tank (301) and then a Settling Tank (302) for reducing the turbidity of the water by means of coagulation and sedimentation. Multimedia Filter (303) removes the remaining suspended solids and colloids whereas the Activated Carbon Filter (305) removes chlorine, odor, volatile organic compounds etc. Clarified water with a turbidity comparable to that of tap water is temporarily kept in Surge Tank (401).
- For the full scale plant an Anjan Unit will be used. The filtration system described above will be used in place of an Anjan Unit because it is not feasible to miniaturize an Anjan Unit. Information is provided on the Anjan Unit.
- Whereas the pilot plant filtering system will not be as effective as Anjan it can provide nonetheless a satisfactory alternative to it especially when the brine is further clarified by the softening step downstream.
- Strontium , 90% of which can removed by Anjan, will remain in solution. However, as will be shown in the softening step, strontium will form non- toxic compounds which can safely disposed of as sludge. Furthermore natural strontium is non radioactive contrary to the public perception.
- In effect, strontium commonly occurs in nature being the 15th most abundant element on Earth, estimated to average approximately 360 parts per million in the Earth’s crust. Frac water contains natural strontium which is dissolved when brine is injected into the formation.
- Step #3 – Brine Softening – In general lime is used for precipitation softening but some problems such as handling difficulties, health problems including chemical bronchitis and also some operating upsets, including blocking the lines and injection equipment, arise during handling it.
- The use of caustic soda as a superior alkaline reagent in water softening is well known and discussed in many references which found caustic soda as an efficient alkaline reagent in water softening compared to lime. The
- precipitation reactions of caustic soda with hardness are shown below:
- magnesium chloride + caustic soda = magnesium hydroxide + salt
- magnesium sulphate + caustic soda = magnesium hydroxide + sodium sulphate
- For precipitating calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium sulphate (CaSO4) the following reaction with soda ash occur:
- calcium chloride + soda ash = calcium carbonate + salt
- calcium sulphate + soda ash = calcium carbonate + sodium sulphate
- The above reactions indicate that the amount of sludge resulting from the precipitation of calcium and magnesium compounds is far lower than that generated by lime treatment. Thus, caustic soda produces salt and sodium sulphate which remain in solution.
- The water analysis indicates that the amount of carbonate hardness in negligible. Traces amounts of bicarbonate will react with caustic soda and from soda ash and magnesium hydroxide. Soda ash will then be used up for removing calcium compounds.
- The barium and strontium content in the feed is unknown at this time. However data from similar operations suggest that they are present in small amounts.
- Barium reacts with sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) which is produced during the reaction of caustic soda with magnesium hydroxide as was shown previously.
- Barium sulfate is non toxic and is frequently used clinically as a radio-contrast agent for X-ray imaging and other diagnostic procedures. It is most often used in imaging of the GI tract during what is colloquially known as a ‘barium meal’. It is therefore obvious that barium sulphate is non toxic.
- Strontium hydroxide, resulted from the reaction between caustic soda and strontium ions is used chiefly in the refining of beet sugar and as a stabilizer in plastic and is also non toxic.
- Strontium carbonate is produced from the reaction with soda ash is non toxic and is used for manufacturing CTV to absorb electrons resulting from the cathode, in the preparation of iridescent glass, luminous paints, strontium oxide or strontium salts and in refining sugar and certain drugs.
- It should be noted that strontium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of its two neighbors calcium and barium. While natural strontium is stable, the synthetic 90Sr isotope is present in radioactive
- fallout and has a half-life of 28.90 years. Natural strontium is NON-
- RADIOACTIVE and NON-TOXIC, a fact that eludes the public that confuses it with synthetic Strontium 90 which is mainly generated by nuclear power plants. This confusion is exploited by the media and politicians to further their interests at the expense of the truth.
- In most applications lime treatment is preferred to caustic soda treatment due to the fact that the use of caustic soda is limited by the carbonated hardness of the water. Thus carbonates reacting with caustic soda increase the amount of soda ash which in turn would increase the alkalinity of water. As a result, sources of water have significant carbonated hardness render softening by lime treatment more suitable.
- In this application carbonated hardness is negligible as can be seen from CO3 and HCO3 content. Consequently, the water treatment needs to deal with non carbonated hardness given by calcium and magnesium compounds which are in significant amount and render the caustic soda very effective in softening the water without the risk of increasing the alkalinity.
- Another reason for opting for lime is the higher price of caustic soda. However, this cost is only apparently higher and needs a careful analysis. Thus, comparison of the lime-sodium carbonate system with caustic softening system shows that the amount of produced CaCO3, in case of using caustic soda, is significantly less than the other case. Decrease in produced CaCO3 significantly reduces the disposal costs. Additionally, the caustic softening process produces 0.5 mole sodium carbonate per mole of consumed caustic soda which can be considered as an economical alternative for water softening, compared to lime and sodium carbonate thus savings in disposal costs and soda ash compensate the higher price of caustic soda.
- Furthermore, a caustic soda plant with a total annual production of 5,000 metric tons, which costs in the order of tens of thousands of dollars can be added to the full size water treatment plant. The plant would use salt (NaCl) brine and electricity for producing caustic soda, chlorine and hydrogen. The excess caustic soda could be sold, fetching three times higher prices than pure salt and its commercialization would be obviously far more lucrative.
- The salt mine in Romania where the brine composition is similar to that in this application has used caustic soda since 2001, thus successfully replacing lime and precluding the problems associated with it.
- With reference to the Treatment Flow Diagram, clear brine drawn from Surge Tank (401) is introduced into Mixing Tank (402) where caustic soda and soda ash react with calcium and magnesium compounds which precipitate of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide.
- Barium and strontium form the non toxic compounds which were described above and also precipitate in Sedimentation Tank (403).
- The sludge is extracted periodically from the bottom of Sedimentation Tank (403), may be dewatered by gravity in a decanter or by means of a dewatering screw (not shown) and disposed of at a landfill. It should be noted that some operators use calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide as additives to fertilizers or for the remediation of acidic soils.
- Softened brine is then filtered through Multimedia Filter (404) and discharged into Surge Tank (501).
- Caustic soda also destroys bacteria and viruses very effectively therefore no additional means need to be provided for bacteria elimination.For example, caustic soda used for clearing sewage piping destroys bacteria in septic tanks and renders them useless so it cannot be used in households
- that have septic tanks.
- A refinement of the softening method used in the salt mine would be the selective removal of magnesium compounds with caustic soda and that of the calcium compounds with soda ash. Magnesium hydroxide and calcium carbonate could thus be separated . Magnesium hydroxide could then be treated with sulfuric acid to obtain Epsom salt.
- Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), pre-dispersed in slurry form, is a common filler material for latex gloves with the aim of achieving maximum saving in material and production costs. Therefore it would be beneficial to depart from the conventional design and introduce this novel method.
- It should be noted, another advantage is that barium could be also precipitated with caustic soda and then neutralized with sulfuric acid in order to obtain completely harmless barium sulfate . This proposed method would have to be discussed with a reputable chemist in order to asses its feasibility and advantages. However, in principle the reactions described above should occur having the expected results mentioned above.
- In order to obtain higher purity Epsom salt barium would have to be extracted prior to using caustic soda. Chelating resins may be able to extract barium that but most of them also have affinity with calcium and magnesium, which defeats the purpose. Selective barium removal with chelating resins needs more investigation and will be one of the objectives of the pilot plant .
- However, if a satisfactory solution cannot be found, barium can be precipitated and neutralized with caustic soda and sulfuric acid. In this case the purity of the Epsom salt will depend on the amount of barium in the frac water.
- Step #4 – Evaporation (Mechanical Vapor Recompressor)
- The last stage of the process comprises Surge Tank (501), Evaporator (502), Crystallizer (503) and Centrifuge (504).
- Evaporator (501) is an MVR (mechanical vapor recompression) type evaporator which comprises a compressor for increasing the pressure of the vapor produced from the brine.
- The pressure increase of the vapor also generates an increase in the condensation temperature. As a result, same vapor can serve as the heating medium for its "mother" liquid i.e. the brine in order to evaporate the brine . Consequently, MVR evaporators are more energy efficient than any other type of evaporator.
- Furthermore, due to the fact that the brine is condensing the vapors, there is no need for condensing them with cooling water. This feature renders the MVR evaporator uniquely suitable for this project since no river water is available in the regions where it will operate. In effect, no other type of evaporator could be utilized in this application.
- For the pilot plant the evaporator capacity will be 0.1 m3/h, which is significantly lower than the capacity of the plant. This is due to the fact that the evaporator and crystallizer need to be portable. The dimensions of an evaporator that has larger capacity would not permit its installation in a
- The system provided by this method is flexible, thus both brine and salt can be produced simultaneously. NaCl brine from Surge Tank (501) can be separated into two streams. A stream will be supplied to the MVR Evaporator (502), Crystallizer (503) and Centrifuge (504). The salt produced in this manner, having a humidity between 2 and 3 % will be sufficient for determining its properties and value on the market.
- The other stream of NaCl brine will not contain Ca and Mg ions and its composition will permit its recycling in fracing operations with important profits.
- Also, the water treatment plant can be operated intermittently for treating the feed and clean brine can be stored in Tank (501). In this situation the evaporator would operate continuously in order to obtain exclusively salt.
- Distilled water (fresh water) is a valuable by-product that can generate important revenues. The income from distilled water and salt will be higher than that generated by the sale of brine therefore a full size unit would be more profitable when the evaporator is used at its maximum capacity. After a preliminary market study is done an ultrapure water system may further process distilled water in order to generate another highly priced by-product, which can be sold to hospitals, semiconductor industry, pharmaceutics, etc. (Has limited use in Texas)
- The heartbeat of the system is the
- Crystal Oily Water Separator.
- Low power consumption with highly efficient design.
- No costly filters required.
- Handles a wide range of densities with no limitation
- on oil particle size.
- Unaffected by chemicals or detergents.
- Coast Guard and ABS Certified IMO MEPC 107 (49)
- compliant. Did not exceed 5ppm even with 100% oil influent.
- Extremely compact, front side access for ease of installation. Easily transported.
- Designed for continuous automated predictable operation.
- The lowest maintenance and operating costs in the industry. 30 units currently operating trouble free for years in various locations.
- Outstanding reliability. Has no internal moving parts & does not require internal maintenance or cleaning
- Crystalline Polishing Units have been devised to remove oil particles to zero ppm. The most advanced polishing units currently in use cannot reduce the oil content below 50 mg/l. Furthermore, there is a limitation on oil particles size, which must be above 20 microns. The performance of older units is even more unsatisfactory, with oil content in the effluent exceeding 200 mg/l.
- The importance of minimizing the oil content cannot be emphasized enough.
- As produced water is pumped into the formation, oil prematurely plugs the well with significant economic losses.
- MVR is very energy efficient, since the latent heat of vaporization is fully utilized through vapor recompression and condensation.
- The major advantage of MVR is the energy economy.
- ØTypical MVR energy requirement is 0.05 to 0.15 kWh per kg of water evaporated.
- For the removal of the hardness ions Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+, there exist two types of ion exchange resins: The first has aminomethylphosphonic (AMP) functional groups while the second has iminodiacetic (IDA) type functional groups. Both types can form stable complexes with alkaline earth ions with the following selectivity preference:
Ba2+< Sr2+< Ca2+< Mg2+
- The difference between the two types lies in the different selectivity for the various alkaline earth elements. The AMP types have more pronounced affinity for Ca2+ and Mg2+ than the IDA types. On the other hand, the IDA types have more pronounced affinities for Sr2+ and Ba2+ than the AMP types. Consequently, the choice of the resin depends on the feed brine composition and on the criterion for the end-point of the loading cycle. If the end-point is based on Ca2+ and Mg2+ breakthrough then the AMP type of resin is recommended. If it is based on Sr2+ breakthrough, then the IDA type of resin gives a longer cycle.
- Water effluent quality can be saturated brine for frac water makeup or can be near potable for fresh water needs
- Perfect water to re-use in all oil and gas needs
- Secondary uses in irrigation and industrial needs
- Does not use current freshwater drinking supplies
- Low cost to operate and maintain
EnergyQuest (“NrgQst”) is a public company established in Nevada, the developer of a novel coal-to-liquids proprietary process. The company prides itself as being a green energy company and has been securing technologies to build upon this vision.
EnergyQuest developed the liquid coal (clean coal) technology (NrgQst CWF) to reduce problems associated with:
Air emissions associated with the greenhouse effect, acid rain,metals and particulate matter (PM) from the combustion of coal. Increasing the energy efficiency of the coal and removal ofpotential fly ash components even on sub-grade lignite coal. The utilization of waste coal fines from mining and processingwhich has an enormous impact on the environment by saving theland area previously reserved for effluent ponds and gob piles.
Earth’s atmosphere is composed of a mixtureof gases, mostly nitrogen (78 percent) andoxygen (20.6 percent). Argon, methane,ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, andcarbon monoxide make up the rest of air. In addition to pure air, our atmosphere alsocarries water vapor, solid particles, and the pollutionwecreate with anemphasis on the greenhousegaseffect andacidrain byburning fossil fuels forenergy. One of air’s most important jobs is to provide living plants and animals (including humans!) with the gases they need. Humans and other animals breathe in oxygen they need; then they use that oxygen to metabolize their food. Oxygen is used to break down a sugar called “glucose” into carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The carbon dioxide and water are released when we exhale. This process is known as “respiration.” Plants respire too, but they also use the carbon dioxide, sunlight and water to make their own food, in a process called “photosynthesis.” The plants release most of the oxygen produced in this process into the atmosphere through their leaves.
Air pollution shortens the life of the average person by nine months worldwide.
Each year, approximately 1.5 billion urban citizens breathe air containing pollution which exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards.
Every year 800,000 people die because of air pollution, and 70% of these are city dwellers.
Source: United Nations Environmental Program
- The greenhouse effect and global warming are not the same thing.
- –Global warming refers to a rise in thetemperature of the surface of the earth
- An increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases lead to an increase in the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. (Called enhanced greenhouse effect)
- –This results in global warming
- Acid rain is caused by the burning of fossil fuels and the natural eruptions of volcanoes.
- Burning oil, gas and coal in power plants, industrial plants, including the combustion of oil and gas in transportation vehicles releases sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) into the atmosphere.
- These gases mix with water droplets in the atmosphere creating weak solutions of nitric and sulfuric acids. When precipitation occurs these solutions fall as acid rain.
- Acid rain increases the acidity levels of rivers, lakes and seas. This can kill aquatic life.
- Acid rain increases the acidity levels of soils. This can kill vegetation.
- Acid rain has been found to destroy the roots and leaves of forests in Germany and Scandinavia have been destroyed as the result of acid rain emissions from the UK.
- Acid rain can erode buildings and monuments (particularly if they are made from limestone).
- Coal fired power plant emissions are being targeted for across the boardreductions due to their significant environmental implications.
- Emission reductions for pollutants such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxideand Sulfur Dioxide have been targeted internationally for some years due totheir contributions to acid rain and the global warming effect.
- More recently however, the emissions focus has broadened to include heavymetals such as Mercury.
- Many states in the US have now legislated limits on mercury emissions.Federal legislation (Clean Air Mercury Rule – CAMR) regulating a stagedreduction in US mercury emissions from 2010 through to 2018 with morepending legislation.
- Fly ash and CO2 legislation is pending reviews.
- NrgQst proprietary clean coal technologies provide significant commercialand technical advantages in the field of mercury removal prior tocombustion from coal fired power stations.
- Mercury enters the environment as a result of normal breakdown ofminerals in rocks and soil through exposure to wind and water.
- Release of mercury from natural sources has remained fairlyconstant over the years.
- Still mercury concentrations in the environment are increasing asa result of human activity.
- Most of the mercury released from human activities isreleased intoair, through fossil fuel combustion, mining, smelting and solid wastecombustion.
- Some forms of human activity release mercury directly into soil orwater, for instance the application of agricultural fertilizers andindustrial wastewater disposal. All mercury that is released in theenvironment will eventually end up in soils or surface waters.
- Once mercury has reached surface waters or soils,microorganisms can convert it to methyl mercury, asubstance that can be absorbed quickly by most organismsand is known to cause nerve damage.
- Fish are organisms that absorb great amounts of methylmercury from surface waters every day.
- As a consequence, methyl mercury can accumulate in fishand in the food chains that they are part of.
- The effects that mercury has on animals are kidneysdamage, stomach disruption, damage to intestines,reproductive failure and DNA alteration.
- Industry (primarily electric power generation and cement production) is the leader
- Transportation is second
- Dramatic, rapid lifestyle change
- Lower, more efficient electric power usage
- Reduced use of fossil fuels for transportation
- Higher-density housing
- Lifestyle changes are very unpopular, but if not done reductions will be involuntary eventually
- Technological solutions
- Planting crops, trees, etc. but too slow, requires lots of water
- Nuclear, hydro, wind and solar power can help, but long lead time to build infrastructure for dramatic change
- Scrubbers can be built to remove CO2, but are very expensive
- NrgQst coal water fuel (CWF) process reducesSOx,NOx, Mercury, particulate matter (PM), fly ashand very efficiently and inexpensively and produces an energy efficient high grade fuel to lower fossil fuel consumption.
- Recent studies have revealed that about 30 percent of the minerals from theunderground coal mining operations are rejected on the surface as waste inthe United States.(1)
- This accumulation of about 3 billion standard tons of fine and coarse coalrefuse is mainly from coal cleaning processes.
- The coal fines that are rejected into the effluent ponds have a highpercentage of pyrite sulfur, which causes significant ground water pollution.
- Coal refuse disposal causes other environmental problems, such as acidformation, erosion and sediment control.
- An estimate by U. S. Bureau of Mines indicates 174,000 acres of coal refusedisposal remains to be reclaimed.(2)
(1) Sciulli, A. G., Ballock, G. P., and Wu, K. K., 1986, “Environmental Approach to Coal Refuse Disposal,”
Mining Engineering. pp 181.
(2) Tatscha, J. H., 1980, “Coal Deposits: Origin, Evolution, and Present Characteristics”, Tatsch Associates, Sudburgh, Massachusetts, pp 36.
- NrgQst introduces a truly Innovative Clean Coal Processing and Conversion Technology with NrgQst CWF.
- The technology can process and convert…
- brown coal (lignite), other coals and petroleumcoke into…
- a stable emulsified fuel with the average particlesize of >70 microns.
- NrgQst has developed a superior technology in size reduction, coalcleaning and stabilization and owns the rights and the intellectualproperty on the process.
- Similar technologies to NrgQst CWF have been commercialized onan industrial scale in Russia and China. Their coal-water fuel has limitedstability and has to utilize stabilizers.
- The basis of NrgQst’s technology is proprietary cavitations andultrasound destruction of coal molecule in a water media, which in factdestroys the coal molecules (long chain molecules). The process deliversa very stable and homogenous fuel without additives which provides aneven and stable burn and prevents load swings.
- NrgQst has an exclusive license with Helix Dynamics, LLC located inTexas for the pulverization and dehydration of coal.
- Their process has taken a number of years to develop; originally based onthe Windhexe “tornado in a can” design and patents through licensingagreements, but have been dramatically altered with the with differentdesigns for a vortex pulverizer that also includes dehydration. This isperfect all types of coal including reclamation of waste coal forpulverization in the >50 micron range and dehydration prior to airclassification that makes the coal suitable for coal water fuels.
- Subsequent particle size analysis performed using a Beckman Coulter LS Particle Size Analyzer showed a median Particle Diameter of 1.357, and 99.5% of the particles were under 2.5 μm (microns). Moisture content in this sample was measured at 18% moisture by weight prior to pulverization and 2% after pulverization.
- The proprietary air classification system utilizes conventional classifiersand classifiers that utilize the Coanda Effect—a completely differentoperating principle from that of typical centrifugal classifiers that canperformlimited simultaneous multiple classification of fine dry powder.
- The classifier works on the principle that the trajectory of a particle in acurrent of air is a function of the inertia and air resistance of that particleor, more simply, of the diameter of that particle.
- As a liquid passes through the mixing unit it is subjected to “controlledcavitation”.
- The heart of the device is a specially designed rotor that spins. Thespinning action generates hydrodynamic cavitation in the rotor cavitiesaway from the metal surfaces.
- The cavitation is controlled and therefore there is no damage. Asmicroscopic cavitation bubbles are produced and collapse, shockwavesare given off into the liquid which can heat and/or mix.
- The unit mixes in a totally different way and creates results that cannot be achieved with other equipment.
- This is all accomplished in a small footprint with no scaling inside the device..
- Sound waves having frequencies higher than those to which the humanear can respond (about 16 kHz) are called ultrasound.
- Ultrasound in the range of 20 to 100 kHz produces high energy wavessometimes referred to as power ultrasound.
- Power ultrasound is used for a variety of purposes including cleaning,welding, rupturing cell walls in biochemistry studies, and dispersingsolids in liquids.
- Image 3There are two outstanding traits of NrgQst CWF –
- Cost advantage over fuel oil and Environmental friendliness over coal
- As water and coal are mixed the initial calorific value of the fuel actuallygoes down approximately 4% less than the original raw coal, howeversince we reduce coal losses and combustion losses by as much as 25%on average the energy benefits far outweigh this occurrence.
- Fly ash is reduced by more than 90% reducing emissions significantlywhile converting (burning) 99% of the coal to energy.
- The liquid coal system can be easily scaled to any size.
- The fuel emulsions remains stable and in suspension for at least 24months without any chemical additives.
- 2 or 3 days after processing, the fuel becomes viscous similar to # 6 FuelOil (Bunker C).
- The fuel can be made from low cost brown coals and can also be used asa fertilizer for growing food crops.
- Physical properties of NrgQst CWF follow high coal incinerationorcombustion efficiency compared to existing layer-to-layercombustion or combustion of pulverized coal. Typical incinerationefficiency estimated to be 99.5%, increasing combustion efficiency asmuch as 25% on average.
- Safety benefits because of the lack of dry coal dust during preparationand storing, NrgQst CWF is a non-explosive fuel.
- Burning NrgQst CWF as a fuel in industrial boilers or for powergeneration removes the need to install ash removing systems.
- NrgQst CWF is indefinitely stable and plastic without the use of anychemical additives.
- Ease of storage in tanks and transportation through pipelines, tanktrucks or barges like any conventional petroleum fuel.
- Physical properties of NrgQst CWF are the same as conventionalNo.6Fuel Oil (Bunker C), but of better quality, due to the ultra low ash,metalsand sulfur content of the process fuel.
- The fuel burns at an average temperature of 1200oC instead of 1500oC.This is a real improvement over existing coal systems.
- The liquid coal fuel can be combusted in a conventional spray nozzleburner system or fluid bed and or a catalytic oxidation process.
- Existing steam-boilers and water-heating boilers which are using gas oroil are easily modified for using NrgQst CWF.
- NrgQst CWF is an excellent candidate for use in turbines and highspeeddiesel engines.
- Acres of land would be saved annually if the coal fines being rejectedinto the effluent ponds could be recovered by the NrgQst CWFprocess.
NrgQst Metals Extraction
NrgQst Aerodynamic Metals Extraction
NrgQst dry mining equipment and machinery is designed and configured for pulverization of metals bearing ores and mining wastes, classification, concentration, separation and recovery of metals and minerals concentrate in dry mode and without the use of water.
Dry processing has many advantages over wet processing, especially the conservation of water, one of our most precious resources.
NrgQst dry mining equipment and machinery is designed and configured for pulverization of metals bearing ores or matrixes for the concentration, separation and recovery of precious metals, light metals and other heavy metals, either from placer (alluvial) deposits or primary surface or subsurface (hard rock) applications, and wastes from mining operations.
The NrgQst dry mining equipment and machinery (Dry Processing Plants) produce as high or higher grade products with generally less concentrate loss than wet concentration methods.
NrgQst Dry Processing Plants may be located anywhere (self-contained energy requirements), regardless of water supply. There is no water to pump or bring from a distance, therefore eliminating the cost of pipes, pumps and related overhead costs.
In most cases the NrgQst Dry Processing Plants increase capacity, cut down on the number of units and space necessary; resulting in smaller and less expensive plants with lower power costs.
Due to greater sensitivity to slight differences in density of the particles, NrgQst Dry Processing Plants will successfully treat ores which are not amenable to wet concentration in the gravity separation methods.
Dry ore may be efficiently separated at the economical releasing point of the minerals, thus making sure the resulting products are dry and are handled, shipped and marketed at a lower cost than wet processing methods.
Since no water is needed to produce separation, climatic conditions will not affect efficient operation.
Step 1 : Size Reduction
NrgQst has an exclusive license on a unique size reduction (communition) process unit (Predator) for the pulverization of metal bearing ores and tailings.
Step 2 – Concentration
The working length of test unit is 7.85 feet and the width is 3.925 feet. The frequency of the separation chamber can be adjusted between 4 – 15 Hz. The air consumption measured is between 9 – 21 m3 per hour and the total energy consumption is 6-15 kW. The capacity of this unit ranges from 5 to 25 t/h depending on the bulk density of the feed material.
The material is passed through a box-like channel the bottom of which consists of a specially designed screen, and covers four individually adjustable consecutive air chambers. The combination of airflow and vibration- individually adjusted for each material size and density range- fluidizes the material on the screen. Additionally, the vibration moves the material through the channel, comparable to a linear vibrating screen. Along the lengthwise movement of the fluidized material through the channel, the segregation of heavies and lights takes place. At the end of each air chamber, the heavies’ layer is discharged, controlled by an adjustable splitter. The light material layer is discharged at the end of the channel.
Step 2 – Air Classification (Concentration)
To insure that the majority of the contaminants have been removed, NrgQst has developed a new aerodynamic air classification system that utilizes conventional cyclones combined with specialized separators for concentration of metals.
The system then separates the mineral grains by a process called “electrostatic beneficiation”, which means charging them with static electricity and separating the different minerals where the minerals have different electrostatic affinities.
Step 3 – Aerodynamic Particle Separation (APS)
An aerodynamic actuator using steady suction has been used to sort particles of various sizes and densities.
- The system has the ability to sort spherical particles with similar size distributions that differ in density by a factor of four simply by modifying the flow speed appropriately, and
- for uniform particles, the standard deviations are very low (in most cases, less than 2 µm). Cut sharpness as high as 0.9 were measured.
- APS is also capable of concentrating air samples. Our measurements indicate that an air sample containing particles with the density of water can be concentrated by a factor of 10.